This event really put landscape issues on the map. You can download the book by individual chapter here.
Bowland Shale published 27th July Read the brief summary on our website or download the full reports Our role BGS will harness new technology to instrument the Earth so that we Project report on bookshop management how geological processes act in real time. We will use our new understanding and existing research capability to rise to challenges across the world, and help society to: Our role is to provide an independent and impartial scientific evidence base on the subsurface of the UK.
Our scientific position on shale gas can be viewed and downloaded from the link below.
Frequently asked questions What exactly is shale gas? Shale gas is mostly composed of methane. Shale gas is produced using technologies developed since the s that enable gas to be recovered from rocks mostly shale which were previously considered to be unsuitable for extracting gas. How does it differ from conventional gas?
Temperature increases with depth, and hydrocarbons, such as oil and gas, are released from the source rocks at different rates depending on how fast the rocks are heated. The hydrocarbons are extracted by drilling through the cap rock into the reservoir.
These hydrocarbons, which can be relatively easily recovered, are known as conventional hydrocarbons and have been exploited for more than years. North Sea gas is a conventional hydrocarbon. The gas is both produced and trapped within the shale.
It is only when the shale is drilled and artificially fractured that the gas is released from the rock and can be extracted. There are several different rock units within the geological sequence of the UK that have the potential to produce shale gas.
The main interest is in the Carboniferous units, particularly the Bowland Shale Formation which occurs throughout parts of north-west and central and eastern England. Other units of interest occur in the Jurassic rocks of the Weald Basinparts of southern and north-eastern England, and County Fermanagh Northern Ireland.
There is a possibility that much older Lower Palaeozoic rocks in Wales and central England may be prospective in shale gas although this remains to be confirmed as it has not been fully evaluated by exploration companies or the BGS. Exploration for shale gas in the UK as with Europe in general is in the very early stages and the actual prospectivity is not known.
How do we get the gas out of the shale? Advances in technology, developed principally in the USA, have meant that gas can now be extracted from shales and other low permeability rocks.
Transferring these technologies from the USA to the UK could give rise to shale gas production if gas occurs in the rocks in commercial quantities.
After initial exploration of the shale deposits, a borehole is drilled into the shale horizon at a carefully selected site. It may be drilled horizontally to increase the volume of rock that can be accessed by the borehole. A process called hydraulic fracturing 'fracking' is undertaken.
This involves pumping water into isolated sections of the borehole at pressures high enough to fracture the surrounding rock. Sand entrained in the water helps to 'prop' open the fractures, create permeability in the rock and allow the gas to flow into the borehole.
Chemicals are also added to improve the efficiency of the fracking operation. Are there any risks associated with fracking? Shale gas extraction and fracking has received a huge amount of media interest. Just like any other industrial process there will be associated risks.
There is also the potential for groundwater and surface water contamination see below for more infomation on potential impacts to groundwater.
Other potential pathways for contamination of groundwater include poor well-design and well construction, and the migration of contaminants along natural pathways into overlying aquifers.
Understanding the risks is a very important step in the design and approval process and very strict controls and regulations are in place to reduce the risks to an acceptable level.
How dangerous are the induced earthquakes caused by fracking? The two main induced earthquakes in Lancashire in were very small.
To put them into context, they were less powerful than some of the earth tremors that have been associated with coal mining in the s and 60s and that occur today.
What is the chance of these risks occurring? There is a broad regulatory framework that already exists. The use of fracking, shale gas technologies and associated activities is covered within the existing regulatory frameworks.
What do you think the likely impact will be on groundwater? There are two potential impacts on groundwater.In May , the World Assembly of Delegates of the OIE requested the Foot and Mouth Disease and Other Epizootics Commission (re-named later as Scientific Commission for Animal Diseases) to develop a procedure for the official recognition by the OIE of the foot and mouth disease free status of Member monstermanfilm.com procedure has since then been expanded to include the official recognition of.
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This project helps both purchaser and seller to purchase and sell the books in easy way. It mailny deals with import of books from different publication houses, their sales and purchaser relations.
This project has many features that sellers find very useful. The seller can arrange the stock, list. Book Shop Management System. References Preface Project The project is a file in which all the form files(*.
If you don’t supply a fully qualified reference. In this case.. Else cmdNext_Click End If End Select End Sub Reports Sale report: Book Shop Management System/5(3).